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Salak

salak
Salak Fruit (Salacca edulis) is one tropical fruit that is currently in great demand by the Japanese, America, and Europe, as well as Indonesia itself. Fruits have a relatively high nutrient content, can be consumed as fresh fruit can also be candied.
Salak plants prefer loose soil with sand content ranging from 45-85%, ie the soil with argillaceous to sandy clay texture. Salak Fruit grows well on neutral soil (pH 6-7), however the bark of plants can grow well in soil with medium acidity (pH 4.5 to 5.5) or slightly alkaline (pH 7.5 to 8.5 .)
Salak fruit mainly grown for its fruit is used, which is popular as a table fruit. Besides eaten fresh, also used to make candied salak, pickled, canned, or packaged as bark chips. Salak is a young used to rujak material. Umbut bark can be eaten. One of the benefits of fruits are as diarrhea medicine. The way is to consume 20 grams of fruit flesh are still young.
Strands of leather leaf and stalk child leaves can be used as a woven material, although of course after-prickly thorns removed first.
Because the thorn-thorn nearly impenetrable, often planted as a grove fence barking. Similarly, pieces of leaves which had dried stalk is often used to arm the fence, or to protect the middle of fruit trees from thieves.
Diverse types and deployment
Salak found growing wild in the wild in the southwestern part of Java and southern Sumatra. But the origins of bark that would not immediately known. Salak cultivated in Thailand, Malaysia and Indonesia, to the east up to the Moluccas. Salak also been introduced to the Philippines, Papua New Guinea, Australia and Fiji.
Some experts consider bark that grows in northern Sumatra originated from a different species, namely S. sumatrana Beccari. S. zalacca itself divided again into two botanical varieties, namely var. zalacca of Java and var. amboinensis (Becc.) Mogea of Bali and the island of Ambon.
Based on the cultivar, the Indonesian people know between 20 to 30 species under the species. Some of the more famous of them are barking Padangsidempuan of North Sumatra, from Jakarta Condet salak, salak salak pondoh from Yogyakarta and Bali. Condet Salak is a floral province of DKI Jakarta.
Salak pondoh
Salak pondoh is phenomenal. Were developed at roughly the 1980s, the bark is sweet and crunchy fruit soon became an important prima donna in the Jogjakarta region. In 1999, these fruit production in Yogyakarta increased 100% in five years, reaching 28,666 tons. Popularity barking in tongues pondoh Indonesian consumers could not be separated from the aroma and taste, the sweet taste fresh without sepat, although the fruit is ripe enough yet though.
The picture clearly shows the jump in production was rapidly than in previous years. Estimated production barked throughout Java until the 1980s only ranged from 7000-50000 tons, with the West Java region contributed approximately half of that amount.
Salak pondoh itself there are a variety of more variants. Some famous of which is pondoh super, pondoh black, ivory pondoh, pondoh nglumut large, and others. In the region of DIY, barking pondoh production centers are the slopes of Mount Merapi area which includes areas of Sleman District Turi, Sleman regency.
Salak pondoh nglumut or often also called salak nglumut, named after the village was producing superior varieties of salak Nglumut Village, Srumbung, Magelang is also located on a bed of Mount Merapi and included into the territory Srumbung, Magelang, Magelang regency, Central Java.
Now pondoh salak plantation has expanded everywhere, like the region Wonosobo, Banjarnegara, Banyumas, Brass and others.
 
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Posted by on October 27, 2010 in Salak

 

Saguaro

The harvesting, processing, and primary consuming of saguaro fruit products occurs at the peak of summer heat and drought, providing a crucial source of very nutritious food and drink at the very time when the O’odham (especially the Tohono O’odham ) must [historically] mobilize effort to plant and cultivate their crops but when most other food sources are likely to be very low.

Not having a reliable water source, these Indians measured strength by the ability to go without water in their arid climate. According to the mythology of the O’odham people, the first Saguaro was created when a young woman sank into the earth and rose back out as a giant cactus, arms raised toward the heavens. They, too, considered themselves as belonging to the earth.
Long poles made from the wooden ribs of Saguaro skeletons were used to hook and knock down the fruits. Like tiny watermelons when split open by hand, the fruit reveals a red interior pulp and thousands of black-red seeds (smaller then poppy seeds). The pulp, tasting like a fig with a hint of strawberry, quenches the thirst.
Iitoi, a legendary hero and creator, was said to have instructed the people in the ancient tradition of making Saguaro wine. Water and Saguaro syrup was to be mixed in tightly woven baskets and then poured into earthen pots called ollas. Stored in a dark cool place, the mixture distilled for 3 to-7 days. This time of fermentation, turning bountiful fruit into spirituous wine, was cause for lively dancing, singing of desert rain songs and incantation of poems. Their word for “drunk” meant “holy, lyrical, bringing knowledge and vision.”
Preserving the rest of the harvest involved soaking the fruit in ollas to loosen the seeds and then simmering the mixture over a fire. The resulting thick syrup, poured into ceramic holders and sealed with desert mud could be used later like sugar. Sun dried seeds, ground then mixed with water, and flour, were baked as bread or were turned into butter. These foods helped provide sustenance throughout the year, until the next harvest.
 
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Posted by on October 26, 2010 in Saguaro

 

Sageretia

Sageretia

Scientific classification

Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Rosales
Family: Rhamnaceae
Genus: Sageretia Brongn.
Species
Sageretia (Sageretia or Mock Buckthorn) is a genus of about 35 species of shrubs and small trees in the family Rhamnaceae, native to southern and eastern Asia and northeast Africa. They have small green leaves 1.5–4 cm long, and a leathery multicoloured trunk. The flowers are small and inconspicuous; the fruit is a small edible drupe 1 cm diameter.
The genus is named after the French botanist Auguste Sageret.
Selected species
* Sageretia brandrethiana
* Sageretia camellifolia
* Sageretia filiformis
* Sageretia gracilis
* Sageretia hamosa
* Sageretia henryi
* Sageretia horrida
* Sageretia laxiflora
* Sageretia lucida
* Sageretia melliana
* Sageretia omeiensis
* Sageretia paucicostata
* Sageretia pycnophylla
* Sageretia randaiensis
* Sageretia rugosa
* Sageretia subcaudata
* Sageretia theezans
Cultivation and uses
The leaves are sometimes used as a substitute for tea in China, and the fruit are edible, though not an important crop. S. theezans, from southern China, is a popular species in bonsai. S. paucicostata, from northern China, is the most cold-tolerant species and is occasionally grown in gardens in Europe and North America, though it is not generally considered very attractive as an ornamental plant. It is reputedly used as a way of cleaning minor cuts and lacerations, ensuring any germs left over will not infect the wound. When ground up and mixed with salt, it forms a minor explosive capable of shattering glass.
 
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Posted by on October 26, 2010 in Sageretia

 

Rose Apple

The Pacific Rose is beautifully distinctive, pink to red color, superb crunch and juicy flesh. It is a mostly sweet apple with very little tartness
Selection Information
Usage: The Pacific rose apple has a superb crunch, with firm, juicy, cream-colored flesh. The apple is thin-skinned for excellent eating. The Pacific Rose has a clean, refreshingly sweet flavor which also makes it a perfect desert apple.
Selection Storage: Good-quality Pacific Rose Apples will be firm with smooth, clean skin and have good color for the variety. Test the firmness of the apple by holding it in the palm of your hand. (Do not push with your thumb). It should feel solid and heavy, not soft and light.
To store, keep Pacific Rose apples as cold as possible in the refrigerator. Apples do not freeze until the temperature drops to 28.5 degrees F.
Avoid: Avoid product with soft or dark spots. Also if the apple skin wrinkles when you rub your thumb across it, the apple has probably been in cold storage too long or has not been kept cool.
Seasonal Information
The Pacific Rose apple is available June to September from New Zealand and December to March from Washington State.
 
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Posted by on October 25, 2010 in Rose Apple

 

Rowan

Rowan
The rowans or mountain-ashes are shrubs or small trees in genus Sorbus of family Rosaceae. They are native throughout the cool temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere, with the highest species diversity in the mountains of western China and the Himalaya, where numerous apomictic microspecies occur. The name rowan was originally applied to the species Sorbus aucuparia, and is also used for other species in Sorbus subgenus Sorbus. Rowans are unrelated to the true ash trees which belong to the genus Fraxinus, family Oleaceae, though the leaves of both are superficially similar.
The name “rowan” is derived from the Old Norse name for the tree, raun. Linguists believe that the Norse name is ultimately derived from a proto-Germanic word raudnian meaning “getting red” and which referred to the red foliage and red berries in the autumn. Rowan is one of the familiar wild trees in the British Isles, and has acquired numerous English folk names. The following are recorded folk names for the rowan: Delight of the eye (Luisliu), Mountain ash, Quickbane, Quickbeam, Quicken (tree), Quickenbeam, Ran tree, Roan tree, Roden-quicken, Roden-quicken-royan, Round wood, Round tree, Royne tree, Rune tree, Sorb apple, Thor’s helper, Whispering tree, Whitty, Wicken-tree, Wiggin, Wiggy, Wiky, Witch wood, Witchbane, Witchen, Witchen Wittern tree. Many of these can be easily linked to the mythology and folklore surrounding the tree. In Gaelic, it is caorann, or Rudha-an (red one, pronounced quite similarly to English “rowan”).
Rowans are excellent small ornamental trees for parks, gardens and wildlife areas. Several of the Chinese species, such as White-fruited rowan (Sorbus glabrescens) are popular for their unusual berry colour, and Sargent’s rowan (Sorbus sargentiana) for its exceptionally large clusters of fruit. Numerous cultivars have also been selected for garden use, several of them, such as the yellow-fruited Sorbus ‘Joseph Rock’, of hybrid origin. They are very attractive to fruit-eating birds, which is reflected in the old name “bird catcher”.
The wood is dense and used for carving and turning and for tool handles and walking sticks. Rowan berries are a traditional source of tannins for mordanting vegetable dyes.
In the Canadian provinces of Newfoundland and Labrador and Nova Scotia this species is commonly referred to as a “Dogberry” tree.
 
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Posted by on October 24, 2010 in Rowan

 

Rosehip

The rose hip, or rose haw, is the pomaceous fruit of the rose plant, that typically is red-to-orange, but ranges from dark purple to black in some species. Rose hips begin to form in spring, and ripen in late summer through autumn.
Health benefits
  • Rose hips contain vitamin C, some vitamin A and B, essential fatty acids and antioxidant flavonoids.
  • Particularly high in Vitamin C, with about 1700–2000 mg per 100 g in the dried product, one of the richest plant sources. RP-HPLC assays of fresh rose hips and several commercially available products revealed a wide range of L-ascorbic acid content, ranging from 0.03 to 1.3%.
Usage
  • Rose hips are used for herbal tea, jam, jelly, syrup, soup, beverages, pies, bread, wine, and marmalade.
  • A few rose species are sometimes grown for the ornamental value of their hips, such as Rosa moyesii, which has prominent large red bottle-shaped fruits.
  • Rose hips have recently become popular as a healthy treat for pet chinchillas. Chinchillas are unable to manufacture their own Vitamin C and lack the proper internal organs to process many vitamin-C rich foods. Rose hips provide a sugarless, safe way to increase the Vitamin C intake of chinchillas and guinea pigs.
  • Rose hips are also fed to horses. The dried and powdered form can be fed at a maximum of 1 tablespoon per day to improve coat condition and new hoof growth.
The fine hairs found inside rose hips are used as itching powder. Dried rosehips are also sold for primitive crafts and home fragrance purposes. Rosehips are scented with essential oils and can be used as a potpourri room air freshener.
Roses are propagated from hips by removing the seeds from the aril (the outer coating) and sowing just beneath the surface of the soil. Placed in a cold frame or a greenhouse, the seeds take at least three months to germinate.
In World War II, the people of Britain were encouraged through letters to The Times newspaper, articles in the British Medical Journal, and pamphlets produced by Claire Loewenfeld, a dietitian working for Great Ormond Street Hospital for Sick Children to gather wild-grown rose hips and to make a Vitamin C syrup for children. This was because German submarines were sinking many commercial ships: citrus fruits from the tropics were very difficult to import.
Rosehips were used in many food preparations by the indigenous peoples of the Americas.
  • Rose hips are used for colds and influenza.
  • Rose hips can be used to make Palinka, a traditional Hungarian alcoholic beverage.
  • Rose hips of some species, especially Rosa canina (Dog Rose) and R. majalis, have been used as a source of Vitamin C. Rose hips are commonly used as a herbal tea, often blended with hibiscus and as an oil. They can also be used to make jam, jelly, marmalade and wine. Rose hip soup, “nyponsoppa,” is especially popular in Sweden. Rhodomel, a type of mead, is made with rose hips.
 
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Posted by on October 24, 2010 in Rosehip

 

Malay Apple

Syzygium malaccense Merr. & Perry

Eugenia malaccensis L.
Jambos malaccensis DC.
A delight to the eye in every respect, the Malay apple is much admired for the beauty of the tree, its flowers and its colorful, glistening fruits, without parallel in the family Myrtaceae. Botanically identified as Syzygium malaccense Merr. & Perry (syns. Eugenia malaccensis L., Jambos malaccensis DC.), this species has earned a few alternate English names including Malay rose-apple, mountain apple, water apple, and, unfortunately, Otaheite apple, which is better limited to the ambarella, Spondias dulcis Park., and cashew, or French cashew (Guyana) or Otaheite cashew (India) because of its resemblance to the cashew apple, the pseudofruit or swollen fruit-stalk of the cashew nut.
In Malaya there are many local names including jambu merah, jambu bar, jambu bol, jambu melaka, jambu kling and jambu kapal. In Thailand, it is chom-phu-sa-raek or chom-phu-daeng; in Cambodia, chompuh kraham; in Vietnam, man hurong tau; in Indonesia, darsana, jambu tersana, or djamboo bol; in the Philippines, makopang-kalabau or tersana; in Guam, makupa; in Tahiti, ahia; in Hawaii, ohia. In the French language it is jambosier rouge, poire de Malaque, pomme Malac (corrupted to pomerac), pomme de Malaisie, and pomme de Tahiti. Among Spanish names are: pomarosa, or pomarrosa, Malaya (Puerto Rico); manzana (Costa Rica), marañon japonés (EI Salvador), pomarosa de Malaca (Colombia); pera de agua or pomagás (Venezuela); and marañon de Curacao (Panama), though the somewhat similar plant in Curacao is S. samarangense Merr. & Perry, locally called cashu di Surinam, in Papiamento, Curacaose appel, in Dutch. The latter species has yellowish-white flowers and light-red, greenish-white or cream-colored fruits. (See Java apple pp. 381-2.)
Glossy, red, juicy, Malay apples
Fig. 102: Glossy, red, juicy, Malay apples (Syzygium malaccense) are sold in markets and along streets in warm areas of the Old and New World.
Description
The Malay apple tree is rather fast-growing, reaching 40 to 60 ft (12-18 m) in height, and has an erect trunk to 15 ft (4.5 m) in circumference and a pyramidal or cylindrical crown. Its evergreen leaves are opposite, short-petioled, elliptic-lanceolate or oblanceolate; soft-leathery, dark-green and fairly glossy on the upper surface, paler beneath; 6 to 18 in (15-45 cm) long, 3 1/2 to 8 in (9-20 cm) wide. The veins are indistinct above, but they and the pale midrib are prominent on the underside. New growth is wine-red at first, changing to pink-buff. The abundant flowers, only mildly fragrant, and borne on the upper trunk and along leafless portions of mature branches in short-stalked clusters of 2 to 8, are 2 to 3 in (5-7.5 cm) wide, and composed of a funnel-like base topped by 5 thick, green sepals, 4 usually pinkish-purple to dark-red (sometimes white, yellow or orange) petals, and numerous concolorous stamens to 1 1/2 in (4 cm) long tipped with yellow anthers. Though showy, the flowers are hidden by the foliage until they fall and form a lovely carpet on the ground. The fruit, oblong, obovoid, or bell-shaped, 2 to 4 in (5-10 cm.) long, 1 to 3 in (2.5-7.5 cm) wide at the apex, has thin, smooth, waxy skin, rose-red or crimson or sometimes white with streaks of red or pink, and white, crisp or spongy, juicy flesh of very mild, sweetish flavor. There may be a single oblate or nearly round seed or 2 hemispherical seeds, 5/8 to 3/4 in (1.6-2 cm) in width, light-brown externally, green internally and somewhat meaty in texture. The fruits of some trees are entirely seedless.
Food Uses
The ripe fruit is eaten raw though many people consider it insipid. It is best stewed with cloves or other flavoring and served with cream as dessert. Asiatic people in Guyana stew the peeled fruit, cooking the skin separately to make a sirup which they add to the cooked fruit. Malayan people may add the petals of the red-flowered hibiscus (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L.) to make the product more colorful. Malay apples are often cooked with acid fruits to the benefit of both. They are sometimes made into sauce or preserves. The slightly unripe fruits are used for making jelly and pickles..
In Puerto Rico, both red and white table wines are made from the malay apple. The fruits are picked as soon as they are fully colored (not allowed to fall) and immediately dipped in boiling water for one minute to destroy surface bacteria and fungi. The seeds are removed and, for red wine, the fruits are passed through a meat grinder and the resulting juice and pulp weighed. To this material, they add twice the amount of water and 1 1/2 lbs (680 g) of white sugar per gallon, and pour into sterilized barrels with the mouth covered soon with cheesecloth. Yeast is added and a coil inserted to maintain circulation of the water. The barrels are kept in the coolest place possible for 6 months to 1 year, then the wine is filtered. It will be of a pale-rose color so artificial color is added to give it a rich-red hue. In making white wine, the fruits are peeled, the only liquid is the fruit juice, and less sugar is used, only 1 1/4 lbs (565 g) per gallon, so as to limit alcohol formation over a fermenting period of 3 to 6 months.
In Indonesia, the flowers are eaten in salads or are preserved in sirup. Young leaves and shoots, before turning green, are consumed raw with rice or are cooked and eaten as greens.
Food Value Per 100 g of Edible Portion*
Moisture  90.3-91.6 g
Protein  0.5-0.7 g
Fat  0.1-0.2 g
Fiber  0.6-0.8 g
Ash   0.26-0.39 g
Calcium 5.6-5.9 mg
Phosphorus  11.6-17.9 mg
Iron  0.2-0.82 mg
Carotene  0.003-0.008 mg
(Vitamin A)  3-10 I.U.
Thiamine  15-39 mcg
Riboflavin  20-39 mcg
Niacin  0.21-0.40 mg
Ascorbic Acid  6.5-17.0 mg
*According to analyses made in Hawaii, El Salvador and Ghana.
Other Uses
Wood: The timber is reddish, soft to hard, tough and heavy, but inclined to warp. It is difficult to work, but is employed for construction, railway ties, and for fashioning bowls and poi-boards in Hawaii.
Medicinal Uses: According to Akana’s translation of Hawaiian Herbs of Medicinal Value, the astringent bark has been much used in local remedies. It is pounded together with salt, the crushed material is strained through coconut husk fiber, and the juice poured into a deep cut. “The patient must exercise absolute self-control as the liquid bums its way into the flesh and nerves.”
In the Molucca, or Spice, Islands, a decoction of the bark is used to treat thrush. Malayans apply a powder of the dried leaves on a cracked tongue. A preparation of the root is a remedy for itching. The root acts as a diuretic and is given to alleviate edema. The root bark is useful against dysentery, also serves as an emmenagogue and abortifacient. Cambodians take a decoction of the fruit, leaves or seeds as a febrifuge. The juice of crushed leaves is applied as a skin lotion and is added to baths. In Brazil, various parts of the plant are used as remedies for constipation, diabetes, coughs, pulmonary catarrh, headache and other ailments. Seeded fruits, seeds, bark and leaves have shown antibiotic activity and have some effect on blood pressure and respiration.
 
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Posted by on October 21, 2010 in Malay Apple